Cabbage is a vegetable that is quite popular among gardeners. This is due to the good taste and beneficial substances that make up the composition. It is necessary to note the moodiness of this culture.
The key to a good harvest is strong and healthy seedlings. In specialized stores an extensive assortment is presented. Each species has its own characteristics. From cabbage you can cook many different dishes. The vegetable has also found its application in folk medicine. Experienced summer residents often use it to eliminate pests.
Cabbage planting options
Cabbage is considered a part of the Cruciferous family. Seed in appearance is similar to radish seeds. Due to the photophilousness and high frost resistance, it is quite difficult to grow this vegetable at home.
When choosing a seedling method, they are guided by a proven growing technology. It is the same for all varieties. Landing is usually carried out in early spring. To determine the exact date, take into account the final maturity and varietal features. Ignoring these recommendations is fraught with low productivity.
Seeds need to create greenhouse conditions. Before starting the procedure, the seed is subjected to hardening and disinfection. Shoots usually appear 5-6 days after planting. The optimum temperature regime does not exceed +18 ° C. The final step is film tension. It is removed after the first true sheet is formed.
To prevent excessive stretching of seedlings, the air temperature will have to be reduced to +8 ° C. Mandatory activities also include regular room ventilation and systematic watering. For the latter, a light pink solution of potassium permanganate is used.
Two weeks later, the sprouts are transferred to peat pots. They can be replaced with plastic molds.
Planting in open soil is carried out only after the plant reaches certain parameters. In early, mid-ripening and late cabbage, they are very different.
This method, contrary to popular belief, is not difficult. In this case, the seeds are planted on pre-prepared beds. Cabbage planted in this way is characterized by higher winter hardiness and drought tolerance. If all the rules are followed, the risk of fungal and viral diseases will be significantly reduced. Additional advantages include fast growth (due to the lack of need for transplantation), full lighting, and accelerated heading out.
Among the factors affecting productivity, the initial state of the soil, the effectiveness of preparatory measures, and climate are distinguished.
In the non-seedling way, late and mid-early cabbage are most often grown.
Dates for sowing cabbage for 2019
To get a good harvest, you need to choose the right time for planting. At the same time, they are guided by such factors as:
- growing method;
- the duration of the seedling period;
- varietal features;
- landing place.
If the gardener decided to plant the cabbage in closed ground, the dates can be shifted by several weeks. This is due to faster heating of the soil in greenhouse structures.
Many are guided by the lunar calendar. When compiling it take into account many indicators. The result of such a serious analysis is a schedule in which only a few favorable days are allocated for planting cabbage.
The lunar calendar has 29 or 30 days. This period is divided into growing and decreasing phases. The days on which the full moon and the new moon fall are of particular importance. Planting, carried out in a favorable period, will contribute to the strengthening of the plant. Sowing is recommended in the first half of the month.
In the new moon, the soil should rest, and in the full moon, harvesting begins.
The best time to plant and plant cabbage on the growing moon.
In 2019, this vegetable can be planted on seedlings in March (10-13, 15-18), in April (8-12, 15-17). Planting seedlings or seeds under cover in open ground in May (7-17) in June (5, 6, 9-15). The latter concerns Beijing cabbage.
Adverse days: March (5-7.20-22), April (4-6, 18-20), May (4-6, 18-20), June (2-4, 16-18).
When choosing varieties, it is necessary to take into account the goals that will be followed during planting. For example, early cabbage is consumed fresh. Mid-ripening varieties are used for short-term fermentation, later - for long-term storage and creation of blanks.
The age of seedlings is determined based on its actual condition. The growing season is the period that is required to achieve technical maturity. It is usually indicated on a package with seeds.
Many are advised to plant different varieties of cabbage at the same time. This becomes possible if the climate allows.
Also, one should not forget about species and varietal features.
White cabbage is considered the most cold-resistant crop. The same can be said about broccoli, kohlrabi, Savoy, red-headed and Brussels.
Beijing cabbage is planted later than other varieties. This is due to its thermophilicity and relatively short growing season.
Ground requirements for growing cabbage seedlings
Soil mix for seedlings can be purchased in a specialized store or made independently. The composition consists of: turf land, humus in equal shares and ash (1 tbsp.spoon per 1 kg of soil.
In the latter case, it must be disinfected and calcined before use.
Features of growing seedlings at home
When choosing a seedling method, the seeds are sown in a box or in separate plastic containers. When determining the timing, you need to consider the following nuances:
- seedlings appear 8-12 days after planting;
- for the formation of adult seedlings, it takes about another 50 days.
Based on this, the seed should be planted in the prepared soil mixture 2 months before the seedlings move to the open ground.
To get strong seedlings, it is necessary to observe a certain temperature regime. When sprouts appear, it should not exceed +9 ° C at night and +17 ° C during the day, otherwise the seedlings will stretch.
A pick is carried out after the appearance of the first pair of true leaves. This procedure will help strengthen the root system, provide adequate lighting and nutrition. Sprouts in the box should not be too close to each other.
Seedlings are strictly forbidden to pour cold water. This can trigger the appearance of signs of a black leg.
Growing seedlings in greenhouses and greenhouses
Seeds before planting must be calibrated and processed. This is necessary in order to prevent the negative impact of pathogens and pests. Proper preparation is the key to high immunity. Disinfection is carried out using a solution of potassium permanganate.
The scheme is drawn up, focusing on an approximate plan of agricultural activities. If the gardener decided to refuse picking, at least 5 cm should be left between the seeds. If this item is present, the optimal distance is 3 cm. Seeding depth is from 2 to 4 cm.
If the required temperature conditions are met, seedlings will appear 4 days after planting. They must be pollinated with wood ash. In the daytime in the greenhouse should be from +15 to +17 ° C, at night - no more than +9 ° C.
Features of planting various types of cabbage
White cabbage can be grown in seedlings and seedlings. and seedlings are grown only in protected ground. The remaining types of cabbage have their own characteristics in planting.
- Chinese and Beijing cabbage must be planted immediately in the ground. When growing seedlings, it becomes necessary to transfer the sprouts from a common box to peat pots and into open soil. These events negatively affect the formation of the vegetable.
- Cauliflower needs fertile soil. The plant is characterized by heat, light and moisture loving. If the air temperature rises above +25 ° C, overdrying of the soil may occur. The result is the emergence of a cavity in the stump and the formation of loose heads of small size.
- Broccoli is brightly colored. The vegetable may be purple, green or yellow-green. Its characteristic feature is unpretentiousness. Difficulties with the cultivation of this crop usually does not arise.
- Kale does not produce dense large heads of cabbage. Its distinctive features include the presence of curly-leaved and flat-sheeted forms, high frost resistance. This variety is suitable for growing in a shaded area. The soil may be characterized by low acidity. Seedlings are placed in open ground when its age reaches 50 days.
- Brussels sprouts have a tall stalk on which small heads of cabbage appear over time. Their diameter does not exceed 7 cm. The vegetation period is from 135 to 160 days.
- Kohlrabi is a stembled characterized by gentle taste and juiciness.
Preparing for landing in the open ground
The first step is to choose the right place. It should be well lit. The list of basic requirements also includes humidity and light. If the cabbage is planted in the shade, you will not have to wait for a good harvest.
On the hottest days, the plant is recommended to shade a little. Otherwise, delicate leaves may suffer. Due to direct sunlight, burns occur on them.
The culture should be planted on cultivated soil. The list of optimal options includes lowland peatlands, loams, floodplain and sandy loamy lands.
To achieve maximum efficiency, you need to monitor the level of acidity (pH). For sod-podzolic soils, this indicator should vary from 6.5 to 7.0, for peat-bog soils - from 5.0 to 5.5.
Planting cabbage on acidic soil is strictly prohibited.
To stabilize acidity, dolomite flour or wood ash is introduced into the ground. They include magnesium and calcium. Experienced gardeners add tobacco dust to these components. In this way, the appearance of a cruciferous flea is prevented.
It should also be taken into account which crops were planted in the selected place earlier. It is desirable that it was clover, potatoes, onions. The list is complemented by cucumbers, beetroot fodder annuals.
Cabbage draws a lot of nutrients from the soil, so it is not recommended to plant it on the same site. The land after this culture needs phytosanitary rehabilitation.
To make the soil more fertile, it is fertilized with potash and nitrogen fertilizers. Most agricultural activities are carried out in spring and autumn. In addition to mineral complexes, organic matter is necessarily added to the soil. Minerals, compost, manure and humus are laid in the ground in the fall.
The site selected for planting is prepared in the fall.
The beds need to be located from east to west.
Digging increases air permeability and friability. An additional advantage of autumn processing is the destruction of pests. Fertilizer is introduced into the soil in the first spring months. The complex composition should include organic substances (rotted manure, compost) and minerals (potassium, phosphorus). The mixture for feeding can be purchased at a special store.
Planting cabbage in the open ground
Each variety has its own calendar of development and needs. Immediately in the open soil, the most frost-resistant varieties are usually planted. They include white cabbage and Savoy cabbage. They take root well in late spring. Seedlings are planted with the presence of leaves from 5-15 on the seedlings. The exact timing of planting is determined based on climatic features. The air temperature at which cabbage is planted in the ground should not be less than +18 ° C.
The distance between plants is 25 cm, between rows 40-50 cm. For late cabbage, the distance must be increased by 10 cm. After planting, they are well watered and mulched.
This culture loves neighbors. Between the forming heads you can plant onions, spinach and various salads. These plants have a surface root system.