Campion or adonis is a plant from the ranunculaceae family. There are several versions regarding the origin of the name. According to one of them, this flower (Greek legend) tears of the goddess Aphrodite, mourning the dying Adonis.
Description and features of adonis
Campion grows in the steppes of Europe with a large grass cover, sometimes found in Germany, Switzerland (very rarely, almost disappeared). He prefers black earth, open places, small elevations. It can grow in some areas on the rocks (Crimea), sometimes on the edge or on the lawns of birch groves or oak forests. It is found in Western Siberia, Altai, the Caucasus, where the flowering period will be only until half of June.
Poets compare this plant with the sun and spring. In botany, the description will not be so beautiful. Its only lemon flower (4-8 cm) is located on the top of the stem. In summer, the fruits of spherical shape (20 mm) ripen nuts (30-40 pcs) with a hooked nose. Leaves are brown. The lower ones resemble scales, other sessile, divided into narrow segments. Direct shoot (15-30 cm) is smooth, rounded in shape. The vertical root is small with processes, brownish in color.
The plant and its parts are considered poisonous. The Red Book in Russia includes Spring Adonis for its protection.
It is grown industrially for use in pharmacy formulations or for the preparation of medicines. With self-assembly in nature, they do this carefully and selectively (3 stems per m2 must not be touched).
Types and varieties of adonis
Campion varies in species: annual and perennial.
The vegetation period of such a plant lasts one season.
Other names are also known: a coal in the fire or the eye of a pheasant. Its smooth stems (10-50 cm) with grooves are different: branched, straight or simple. Leaves, consisting of two or three lobes, are of the following types: sessile at the top, petiolate at the bottom. The size of the flower is 2-3 cm. Red perianth with a dark central spot. The flowering period is all summer.
Sometimes called adonis annual. It grows to 30 cm. The leaves are thin, cut with the next arrangement. The flowers are light yellow or rich red (1.5 cm), closed at the top. Their central part is dark. Artificially grown since 1596
For several years, they grow in one place and do not change their properties. They have periods of development and rest.
The inflorescence is lemon, and the sepals are purple. There are few shoots from the thick root. Height 30 cm. With half the stem begins to branch. Before the first inflorescence appears on the leaves and stems, there is frequent pubescence, then it thins. The dissected leaf spins to the ground.
Grows in the Far East. The first to appear yellowish-golden large flowers (5 cm). Then cirrus leaves with petioles. During blooming, plant growth is 12 cm, later 35. It belongs to forest species, flowering lasts almost 20 days. On its basis, many varieties with various shades are bred.
|Ben Ten||Velvet white.|
|Sandanzaki||Yellow, protective color petals in the middle, semi-fluffy.|
|Hinomoto||The front part is protective-bronze, lower coral.|
|Pleniflora||Straw with greens, shaggy.|
Saturated golden (6 cm) flower. It grows to 60 cm, the leaves are pinnately separate. It blooms in late spring or June.
For growth, he selects the edges of birch groves or a flat steppe. He has single densely pubescent stems (15 cm). Initially, lemon flowers appear, then the leaves begin to grow triangular or oval. During this period, pubescence decreases, and the height reaches already 30 cm.
A very rare flower included in the international Red Book. Healthy, highly regarded in design.
On one bush, ovary, buds and flowers are simultaneously present (4-6 cm). The color of the petals of the inflorescence is two shades: the outer part is light blue, the inner orange-yellow. The aerial parts of the healing plant are covered with curly hairs.
Usually grows on unused pastures. The bush consists of 30 shoots. White flower (5 cm) opens first. Sepals are salad with a lilac hue. Leaves in the middle sessile, lower ones reduced.
Artificial breeding of this species began in the 16th century for decorative and medicinal purposes. A thick little rhizome gives many branched brown shoots. During the flowering period, the height is 5-20 cm, after 40-60. Finger-like foliage, cut into narrow lobes. Yellow flowers (7 cm) consist of 12-20 glossy petals that appear at 4-6 years of life in April.
Growing Adonis from Seeds
Sowing seeds is somewhat different for annuals and perennials. One-year-olds are planted in the fall (November) in the garden to a depth of 1-2 cm. Germination may persist for a short time, so it is better to use recently collected ones. Shop seeds are sown in the spring in the greenhouse.
Perennials are planted in autumn in containers, and then placed in a cool place. In winter, in the presence of snow they are put in a snowdrift.
The best seeds can be obtained from plants whose age is 6-7 years.
It is advisable to prepare the soil for sowing by mixing sand, turf soil and manure in a ratio of 2: 1: 1. The first shoots usually appear after the air heats up and becomes +20 ° C. However, there are seeds that may take a year to germinate.
Shooters need bright light, but it must be diffused and must be protected from direct rays. Irrigation and gentle loosening are performed daily. Seedlings are thinned, leaving a distance of 15-20 cm.
If there is little time left before the transplant, then it is better not to do this.
Transplanting Adonis seedlings in open ground
Leaving and planting the plant in the open ground is a simple procedure. Usually strong and already grown sprouts are planted. Depending on when the seedlings appeared, determine the time of transplantation. It must be remembered that a flower for a successful wintering, you need to take root well, and it takes 4 months.
A great place in the garden for Adonis will be where in the morning there is a lot of sunshine, and after lunch a shadow. For abundant flowering, the soil should contain a lot of fertilizers and limes, acidity of 7.0-7.5 pH. The distance between seedlings is 25-30 cm. The prepared hole should be sufficient depth for the root so that it does not bend. After planting, water and cover. In the first year after, it usually does not bloom due to its slow development.
Adonis care in the garden
Adonis is an unpretentious plant, so special care for it is not required. The following procedures must be carried out:
- regular watering, not allowing both drying out and stagnation of moisture;
- periodic loosening to ensure access of air and water to the roots;
- regular fertilizing (complex, manure) before flowering and at the end of summer;
- blooming inflorescences during the first 2 years do not break, so as not to damage the buds of renewal;
- shelter for the winter.
Adonis or Campion after flowering
The Campion bloomed, the fruits appeared, you can start collecting seeds. For this, they are taken not yet ripe and immediately planted, because they are not stored. Young shoots must be covered with peat and spruce branches for protection in the winter. Adult flowers (2 years) do not need this, because they are cold-resistant.
The plant is propagated in two ways: seedlings and dividing the bush. In the first embodiment, it is growing from seeds. The second can be applied to those bushes, whose age is 5 years or more. This is usually done in early autumn. Carefully dig out the bush and tear it into several parts so that each one has a root and at least 2 buds. Parts should be left large to facilitate the rooting process. The cut site is disinfected and immediately planted.
Care for them is the same as for young seedlings. If flowers appear on such a bush, then they must be carefully removed. The plant should take root well in a new place before the onset of cold weather.
Diseases and pests
Because of its toxicity, Adonis is not afraid of rodents and various insects. It can be exposed mainly to two ailments:
- Rot. Appears with heavy watering or when there is no water flow. The diseased part of the plant is removed with a sharp tool, and the cut point is pollinated with sulfur or ash.
- Fusarium Wilting, alteration caused by fungus. It is necessary to carry out disinfection with the special drug Benomil.
Mr. Dachnik recommends: the healing properties of spring adonis
Of all the types of adonis known healing properties, mainly in the spring. It contains cardiac glycosides, vitamin C, salts of Mg, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and tannins. They determine the use of the plant in folk and official medicine:
- Circulatory disturbance, nervous system disorder, epilepsy, hypertension, etc. Improves heart function, blood pressure normalizes, shortness of breath and swelling of the legs decreases.
- Kidney disease. As a diuretic for urolithiasis.
- Whooping cough, chronic bronchitis. It has a depressing effect on the cough center.
- Joint pain, rheumatism.
- Glaucoma, hepatitis.
Decoctions, infusions, teas and alcohol tinctures are prepared from it. It is well recommended the joint use of adonis with other medicinal plants. Medicinal preparations are being prepared for diseases of the kidneys, hypertension, and in the complex treatment of hepatitis. In medicine, Adonis is part of some types of tablets (Adonis bromine) and potions (Ankylosing spondylitis), homeopathic medicines.