Greenhouse - an indispensable design in any garden. It allows you to protect seedlings, greens and early crops from frost, provides a plentiful harvest, even in cold weather. The construction can be of various shapes and sizes, so it will not be difficult to pick it up for any site so that it blends in harmoniously and does not occupy the usable area. In specialized stores, this design is not cheap. It’s not necessary to spend big money on it, because you can make a greenhouse with your own hands and save.
Location on the site
Before proceeding to the construction of the greenhouse, you need to determine its location. Especially if it is stationary, not portable. The size, shape, and amount of material used depends on the choice of place.
When choosing a territory for a greenhouse, the following should be considered:
- The plot is pre-aligned. The design cannot be installed on a slope. When there are stumps, snags and other obstructions, they will need to be removed before the greenhouse is built.
- Crops need sunlight. Therefore, it is impossible to build a warm shelter in the shade. This will adversely affect the development of seedlings and further fruiting.
- In the greenhouse will need to carry out agricultural work. Therefore, it is necessary that it be easy to reach with inventory so that it opens calmly.
- It is recommended to build the structure from east to west. Thanks to this, plants will receive maximum sunlight. When it is necessary that this happens only in the morning and in the evening, the structures must be installed in the direction from north to south. This will provide protection from the midday sun.
- If you plan to constantly grow tomatoes or cucumbers in the greenhouse, it is recommended to install another one next to it. This is due to the fact that these cultures need to be transplanted annually to a new place. Thanks to the presence of the second greenhouse, it will be possible to change places every year. When there is no space for so many structures, you can create their mini versions.
Helpful information! It is best to do construction in mid-spring. There is no snow anymore, and the plants still do not have time to enter full growth. You can, of course, build greenhouses at any time, except in winter (work will be complicated by severe cold and frozen soil).
Types of Greenhouses
The most reliable and convenient varieties of hotbeds that you can make yourself:
|Bread box. It opens according to the principle of the breadbox, hence the name. It is convenient in that the lid does not fall, it does not need supports.|
|Arched. Simple and budget scheme of the greenhouse. Arcs are stuck in the ground, covered with a film, spanbond. Easy to assemble and disassemble without special skills. For manufacturing, pipes can be used after bending.|
|Thermos. The greenhouse is dug into the ground. There is only a lid on the surface for access to plants and ventilation. Thanks to this, heat is better stored inside.|
|Butterfly. Shapes of an arch or house. The peculiarity is that the two doors hinged outward, resemble wings. Access is provided from both sides. Doors can be made of polycarbonate.|
|Lodge (gable). The boards are joined in the ridge. They are covered with a film or covering material. Such a variety is quick and easy to install, can be portable, but does not have good stability. Therefore, it is most often used as a temporary shelter.|
|Single slope. The design resembles a chest with a flat lid. To ventilate under the roof put props.|
The listed varieties can be upgraded by adding additional elements.
The most important thing is to think through the whole scheme in stages.
Helpful information! In the attic and in the barn, you can find many old things that are perfect for creating a greenhouse. For example, window frames, old beds, drywall, polypropylene or aluminum profiles and more. It is only necessary to turn on the imagination in order to figure out how to make shelter for plants from them without investing money in it.
Consider the most popular materials for frames and shelters. And also, below are step-by-step instructions on how to make a greenhouse with your own hands from various materials.
Frameworks for greenhouses
In the manufacture of the frame of greenhouses, you can use different materials:
- Metal. Durable and durable, but heavy. For the construction of a greenhouse from reinforcement, special tools are needed (to weld metal parts). The material lends itself to rust, but this can be fixed by galvanizing it. If the structure falls (for example, from a professional pipe), then crush the plants.
- Tree, PVC, chipboard. To create such a structure is easy, only basic building skills are needed. Wooden structures made of timber should be covered with special compounds so that they do not get bugs.
- Plastic, propylene. Lightweight and durable. It bends well, from it you can create structures of various shapes. If a plastic greenhouse falls on crops, nothing will happen to them. The disadvantage is that it does not withstand the load, bends and cracks.
Attention! To create a greenhouse, furniture corners, screws, clamps, etc. will also be needed. You can make doors with handles.
Do-it-yourself greenhouse from pipes (pro-propylene, profile, metal-plastic): step-by-step instructions
Having determined the location, understanding what size you need a greenhouse. Having made its schematic image on paper, it is necessary to transfer the marking to the ground.
The second stage after marking is the creation of a wooden foundation - the base of the greenhouse. To do this, take the right size boards, fasten them with corners and screws. It turns out a single design in the form of a rectangle. Land is poured there, based on the calculation of the height of the board, the perimeter of the structure.
The process of installing and fixing arcs step by step
How to install and fix arcs with your own hands in stages
|To ensure the stability of the base in the corners between the boards clog a piece of reinforcement.|
|Pipes are cut about 70-80 cm, they are installed at a distance of 50 cm from each other, trying to position them opposite so that there are no distortions.|
|Pipes of the selected length are inserted into the reinforcement.|
|Fix with clamps and screws to the boards.|
|For stability of the arc design, they are connected with a longitudinal pipe, fixing it with special cross-shaped fittings.|
In the sections about the polycarbonate greenhouse, fixing the film and spunbond, you can see how to attach any of these materials to this type of greenhouse.
Greenhouse from wooden boards: step by step instructions
In this case, the tree will act as the frame, and the film will be the covering material.
|We cook boards, it is better to pre-treat them with an antiseptic, so that they do not rot and serve longer.|
|We assemble the base, fastening the boards with screws, corners along the perimeter.|
|Mark the distance at which we will place the pegs. It depends on the length of the greenhouse. Usually after 40-70 cm.|
We hammer with a mallet stakes, 5 × 5 cm, 50 cm long, into the ground to a depth of at least 10 cm.
|We also fasten them with screws to the base.|
We take strips 5 × 2 cm in size, the length equal to the distance between the opposing bars. We fix them.
|We stretch the ropes between the straps so that the film does not fall through.|
Next, we will consider materials that can be used to cover greenhouses and how to do it.
Materials for greenhouses
The best greenhouse projects are made of polycarbonate, double-glazed windows and low-pressure polyethylene (HDPE). They are inexpensive and can even be littered somewhere in the barn (for example, window frames). Consider the characteristics of materials:
|Installation complexity and weight||Lightweight, self-supporting material. When choosing it, you can reduce the number of frame parts, without creating a foundation.||It is a heavy material, which requires a strong frame and base.||The lightest material presented. It can even be carried away by the wind, so it needs to be attached to the frame.|
|Operational period||It has a long service life of 20-25 years. Manufacturers usually give it a 10 year warranty. The material itself is an element of the supporting structure. After installation, it does not deform or warp.||It will last a long time if it is protected from hail, snow, etc. Such a greenhouse can be placed under a canopy.||It has a short operational period (maximum 2-3 years). Polyethylene deteriorates when exposed to sunlight.|
|Soundproofing||Has a honeycomb structure. Thanks to this, the noise of the wind is muffled.||If it is bad to install a glass greenhouse, the draft will penetrate inside, the glass will ring and rattle.||Virtually no noise. With a strong wind, the film begins to rustle strongly.|
|Aesthetics||It looks very modern and attractive. To some extent, it can even become the decor of the site.||With high-quality installation it looks very aesthetically pleasing.||It looks aesthetically pleasing only at first, then it starts to deteriorate and burn out under the sun.|
|Security||It does not break or crack when dropped or hit. Stronger, but at the same time lighter than glass.||If the glass breaks, it can be injured. Therefore, during installation, it is recommended to take care of safety equipment (rubber gloves, tight shoes, etc.).||Completely safe.|
|Care||Accumulated dust is almost invisible. If desired, it can be washed off with ordinary water from a hose.||After rain, muddy streaks may remain on the surface. Eliminate them only when using special detergents.||This material must not be washed with contamination because it will remain stains that impede the penetration of sunlight.|
|Microclimate inside||Prevents heat loss, due to which the greenhouse effect is created. The resulting condensate flows down the walls without falling onto the plants. It transmits and scatters light well.||Keeps heat worse than polycarbonate. It transmits rays well, but does not scatter them. If the glass is of poor quality, it can work like a magnifying glass, which is detrimental to crops, because sunburns will appear.||The new material retains heat well and transmits the sun. However, the very next season it becomes thinner and cloudy.|
Spunbond is also often used. It is a breathable covering material. Good oxygen permeability and humidity. It does not get wet or release heat. Cut with scissors, washable.Spanbond
Previously, we already considered frames for hotbeds, and now we will see how to fix the materials that we talked about in the table.
Polycarbonate greenhouse: step-by-step instructions on how to attach material to different frames
Consider mounting polycarbonate on various designs.
Mounting polycarbonate on a metal frame
The metal frame should consist of rafters and girders. It does not have any protrusions, so it will not be difficult to fix the canvas on it. The distance between the rafters should be equal to the width of the polycarbonate sheets.
The step-by-step process of attaching cellular polycarbonate to a metal structure using profiles (click on the picture on the left to enlarge it):
|Materials and schemes||Instruction manual|
|Self-adhesive rubber gaskets are placed on metal beams. If you have a small greenhouse, you can not use them.|
|They take special profiles for polycarbonate, attach them to the metal grid with self-tapping screws with thermal washers.|
|Polycarbonate sheets protect against moisture, insects, and dirt from entering the cells with a sealing film that is glued to the ends. Bottom perforated, sealed on top.|
|Then the sheets are inserted into the profiles and snap.|
Do not forget to remove the protective film from polycarbonate.
Fastening polycarbonate to plastic or wooden structures
We make the construction as described above. Then, according to the size of the distances between the beams, we cut out polycarbonate sheets.
Important: Cellular polycarbonate is cut with a sharp knife or a circular saw. It must be strictly fixed in the workplace. These are necessary conditions so as not to crush the stiffeners.
The ends of the sheets are glued with a special tape for protection.
Next, we fix the sheets to the structure:
Sheets are placed on the structure, so that it goes beyond the frame by about 3 cm. Drill holes for fasteners with an electric drill.
|Washers are laid on the holes obtained, then thermowells. All this is screwed using a screwdriver.|
The fixing step depends on the thickness of the polycarbonate (it is better to use 6-8 mm), the dimensions of the cut sheet. It is approximately equal to 30-50 cm and lag behind the edge by at least 5 cm.
Window frame greenhouse: step-by-step instructions
|To process wooden whetstones with an antiseptic or mastic for protection against insects and decay.|
|On the marked place under the greenhouse we lay out the foundation of brick on concrete mortar (you can not do this, but just make a bed of crushed stone.|
|From the processed wooden bars according to the size of our frames we assemble a frame for a greenhouse. The resulting design is put on a foundation of powder or masonry.|
|We insert window frames on a wooden structure. Loops and screws connect them. We attach a handle to the edge of the frame, which is closer to the bottom, to raise the frames, if initially they were not.|
Fastening the film to different types of frame
We already know that wireframes can be different. Consider how to attach a film to various materials.
The film is mounted on a wooden frame in the following ways:
|You can use a stapler, but to reduce the breakthrough of the film, it is worth making a gasket, for example - cut the tape from old linoleum or from any other strong material. It is better to use a reinforced film so that it lasts longer even when pierced with nails during fastening.|
|You can fix the film using a rail nailed from the ends. The first method involves fixing the film, that is, piercing it, on the sides and on the roof. With the help of rails, we fix only from the ends.|
If the film is not reinforced, it is more exposed to breakthroughs at the attachment points. The rack (second) method reduces the incidence of film damage.
Metal and PVC pipes
To fix the film on plastic pipes, special clamps are needed. They can be purchased in special stores, they are not expensive.
Clips can be made by yourself. Plastic tubes are cut and the side of the same plastic pipes is cut out on the side. In order not to tear the film, the edges of the improvised clamps are ground.
If metal clips are used, a gasket of any material is placed under them so that it does not spoil the film when heated in the sun.
Used for fastening on narrow frames stationery clips.
For spanbond, a frame made of plastic pipes is best suited. We examined it above.
After making the structure, it is covered with covering material, spanbond is pulled, pressed to the ground by any means at hand (bricks, boards).
Such a greenhouse is suitable for cucumbers, tomatoes, eggplant, peppers and other vegetables.
Sometimes sewn gutters are made on spunbond, where PVC pipes are inserted, and only then they are attached to the structure.
Various designs are made under snubond, depending on the application. For example, for flowers, the frame of plastic pipes is made in a circle or trapezoid.
Do not forget. The covering material is laid with the rough side up.
Sometimes spanbond is attached with paper clips, but they leave rusty marks on the material, which reduces its service life.